Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs <p><strong><a title="About" href="https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scholars Journal of Science and Technology</a></strong> (Scholar J. Sci. &amp; Tech. or SJST), is a peer-reviewed journal covering all areas of science and technology, launched in 2020. It published 6 Issues <strong>(Bi-Monthly</strong>) by the <strong>Scholar Indexing Society</strong>. Manuscripts submitted to the <strong>SJST</strong> should present original materials not previously published or under consideration for publication elsewhere. <strong>Scholars Journal of Science and Technology</strong> is entirely under the guidance and supervision of extraordinarily talented and qualified editors and reviewers selectively chosen from the Scholar Indexing Society<strong> Council.</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Editor in Chief:</strong> Beverly Kracher, PhD.<a href="https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="https://www.recentscientific.com/sites/default/files/new_0.gif" /></a></li> <li><strong>Associate Chief Editor:</strong> <a href="https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Professor Samantha Dieckmann</a></li> <li><strong>Section Editor:</strong> <a href="https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Professor James Patrick</a></li> <li><strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 2228-837X</li> <li><strong>Start year:</strong> 2020</li> <li><strong>Language:</strong> English</li> <li><strong>Publication fee:</strong> NO Article Submission Charges </li> <li><strong>Free access:</strong> Immediate</li> <li><strong>Issues per year:</strong> 6 Issues (<strong>Bi-Monthly</strong>) <img src="https://www.recentscientific.com/sites/default/files/new_0.gif" /></li> <li><strong>Review Process: </strong>Double Blinded</li> <li><strong>Plagiarism Tolerance:</strong> Zero Level</li> </ul> <h1>Mission</h1> <p>The scholars journal of science and technology (SJST) will provide an international forum for dissemination and exchange of findings of empirical research, topical issues, and theories, and reviews on various issues of the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and technology from Ghanaian, African, and world perspectives. scholars journal of science and technology will accept manuscripts/papers from Ghana, Africa, and other geographic regions of the world with the aim of publishing articles linked with contemporary theories and practices.</p> <h1>Target</h1> <p>As a journal with an international outlook and national relevance, the natural audience for scholars journal of science and technology will include students, academics, scholars, researchers, and professionals in the fields of education, religions, health, information communication, computing, and management sciences and technology. The likely subscribers of scholars journal of science and technology are universities, research institutions, Libraries, research funding organizations, government and international agencies, regulatory institutions and individual researchers, etc.</p> <h1><strong>Peer-review Policy</strong></h1> <p>The manuscript will be reviewed by two suitable experts in their respective subject areas. The reports of both the reviewers will be considered when deciding on acceptance/revision or rejection of a manuscript. Editor-In-Chief will make the final decision, based on the reviewer’s comments.</p> <h1><strong>Plagiarism policy</strong></h1> <p>The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.</p> Scholar Indexing Society en-US Scholars Journal of Science and Technology 2228-835X An Intelligent Call Admission Controller for Guaranteed QOS in 4G Mobile Networks https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/68 <p>Call admission control (CAC), a resource management function, is required to regulate network access to provide the required levels of QoS to emerging services in Fourth Generation (4G) mobile networks. However, CAC is one of the challenging issues for quality of service (QoS) due to imprecise, uncertain and inaccurate measurements of network data. Although a type-1 fuzzy system (T1FLS) can handle the uncertainties related to imprecise data, it cannot adequately handle new problems posed by the complex nature of data traffic and diversity of the QoS requirements of data users. This is because T1FLS is characterized by precise membership functions. This study presents an intelligent CAC controller for a 4G network using interval type-2 fuzzy logic (IT2FL) for providing guaranteed QoS requirements. The IT2FLS with fuzzy membership functions can fully cope with uncertainties associated with such dynamic network environments by raising its accuracy for better performance. The Karnik–Mendel (KM) iterative algorithm and Wu-Mendel (WM) approach are explored for computing the centroid and to derive inner and outer-bound sets for the type-reduced set of IT2FS respectively. The study also implements a T1FLS – CAC for comparison with the KM and WM methods. The empirical comparison is made on the designed system with synthetic datasets. Simulation and analyses of results indicate that IT2FLS-CAC using the WU approach achieves minimal call blocking probability and provides high performance in CAC decision making with a more reduced root mean square error (RMSE) than IT2FLS-CAC using KM and IT1FLS approaches.</p> Uduak Umoh Imoh Eyoh Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 555 572 10.53075/Ijmsirq/665776655667697645 The Problem of Stress and Management Strategies Among Public Health and Allied Science (PHAS) Weekend Students https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/66 <p>The Catholic University operates a week-end degree programme, which has provided opportunities for workers to pursue degrees concurrently with work. Despite its positive effects, however, this phenomenon has exposed weekend students to socio-economic and academic stress in their attempts to combine both working and academic life. Consequently, this study seeks to explore factors associated with the problem of stress and its management strategies adopted by Public Health and Allied Science (PHAS) weekend students of Catholic University College of Ghana. A descriptive survey design is adopted. Questionnaires are developed and used to collect data from 150 PHAS weekend students, non-probability sampling technique is employed namely purposive and convenience sampling. A retention rate of 88% is achieved. Frequencies and percentages are used to analyse data with the aid of SPSS version 16. Tables and bar graphs are used to presents the results of the data. The findings suggest that majority of PHAS weekend students perceived stress at the workplace, had personal stressors and also school-related stressors. It is also identified that students used more constructive coping strategies to deal with stress instead of counter-productive strategies like the use of alcohol or drugs. However, the study also established that the perceived stress affected the academic performance of the students. It is recommended that the Administration and Management of Catholic University College should establish study centres across the country based on the regional and districts distribution of students to reduce the travel time of students.</p> Ernest Boateng Ojo Luke Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 529 539 10.53075/Ijmsirq/665776654677851 A Sociological Presentation of Marriage and Family Life in the Western Contemporary World https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/64 <p>This paper presents a comprehensive social view about marriage and family life in the contemporary western world. Family and marriage may appear to be familiar themes at first glance. Families exist in all communities and are an integral element of our humanity. However, there is a great deal of cultural difference in how people view family and marriage around the world. Cross-cultural perspectives on how people relate to one another, what form of marriage is desirable, when people should have children, who should care for children, and many other family-related issues differ. While families are designed to meet basic human needs such as providing for children, defining parental duties, regulating sexuality, and passing property and knowledge down through generations, there are many different ways to accomplish these needs. This paper discusses some of the most typical family life patterns observed around the world. It's crucial to keep in mind that within any cultural context, differences do exist. Some variants on the typical pattern fall within the "spectrum of acceptable alternatives" as defined by culture. Other family structures are not universally approved, but most community members would consider them appropriate. For e.g., the Family is thought to be the most intact and stable essential unit of any community in Ascombe societies. According to popular belief, an intact family consists of a man and woman married to each other and any children they may have. As a result, they describe marriage as an exclusive and monogamous connection between a man and a woman based on mutual love and aid, to remain so committed until death. In most societies, the state and social custom respect this commitment. The family is in charge of providing the social support that a stable society requires. The optimum setting for raising children is a happy, healthy family that provides them with the love, support, and education they need to succeed in adulthood. As a result, the family is the finest institution for nourishing and rearing future generations, preparing them for the responsibilities that will be required of them as leaders of society in the future.</p> Dedo Williams Johannes Yao Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 480 490 10.53075/Ijmsirq/6657896665 Critical Evaluation of the Evolution of Traditional and Contemporary Leadership and Management Theories https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/72 <p>The field of evolution of leadership theories and management practices is continuing to emerge. The scenarios in the contemporary L&amp;M practices are changing with elements of other theories developing from history. For instance, the holistic concept of leadership developed through phases incorporating evolutionary and transformative nature. The practical aspect of L&amp;M practices challenges the nature of developments of future theories and practices. The identification of leadership theories and management practices re-examine the historical concept of leadership and management practices. The research article discusses the issues to critically evaluate the evolution of leadership theories and management practices. However, numerous databases were used, the search was done utilizing some of the precise phrases in order to obtain the desired result. Leadership theories, the evolution of leadership theories, management practices, and the developing nature of management practices are among the words. The Google Scholar platform and Wiley Sources are used to evaluating peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed papers from various academic and non-academic publications. the review and evaluation of the leadership and management practices reveal some of the critical new directions to future developments. L&amp;M practices a leader's visionary nature and forms policies and governance for the management of people within the organisation.</p> Augustine Owusu-Addo Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 579 585 10.53075/Ijmsirq/66565557949 Implementation of Object Detection and Tracking by Using Deep Learning Based Convolutional Neural Networks https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/62 <p>Video object detection plays a significant role in various applications, including security, remote sensing and hyperspectral. In recent years, deep learning-based algorithms have made significant advances in video object recognition. The conventional machine learning applications have resulted in poor accuracy. In this article, a unified deep learning-based convolutional neural network (DLCNN) is developed for composite multi-object recognition in videos. DLCNN analyses a composite item like a collection of background and adds part information into feature information to enhance hybrid object recognition. Correct component information may help forecast the shape and size of a feature data, which helps solve challenges caused by different forms and sizes of various objects. Finally, the DLCNN draws a bounding box to detect objects using background features. Further, the simulation results show that the proposed method's performance is improved compared to the state of art approaches.</p> Atianashie Miracle A. Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 503 510 10.53075/Ijmsirq/665776577677656 Understanding the Discrepancies Between External Genitalia and Internal Reproductive Organs in Both Female and Male (Hermaphroditism) https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/69 <p>This review article presents a multifaceted Understanding of the Discrepancies Between External Genitalia and Internal Reproductive Organs in Both females and Male. Hermaphroditism or Intersex refers to human conditions in differences between the external genitalia and the internal reproductive organs. Intersex issues are sometimes known as sexual development disorders (DSDs). Such circumstances are quite rare in humans. Ovotesticular illness (also known as real hermaphroditism) occurs when a person has both ovarian and testicular tissue. Being a hermaphrodite is thought to increase the chances of solitary organisms reproducing because they can both give and receive gametes. This allows them to both share their DNA while at the same time having the chance to develop offspring of their own. However, True hermaphrodite is one of the rarest variety of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) and represents only 5% cases of all. A few cases of malignancies like dysgerminoma and gonadoblastoma have been reported in true hermaphroditism. Hence people with hermaphroditism will require close follow up to diagnose any malignancy arising in their remaining testis. Since the incidence of gonadal malignancy is low.</p> Chukwuma Chinaza Adaobi Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 573 578 10.53075/Ijmsirq/6657766555797645 Extrapolative Analytics of COVID-19 Pandemic: Arithmetical Modelling Perspective https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/67 <p>The Catholic University operates a week-end degree programme, which has provided opportunities for workers to pursue degrees concurrently with work. Despite its positive effects, however, this phenomenon has exposed weekend students to socio-economic and academic stress in their attempts to combine both working and academic life. Consequently, this study seeks to explore factors associated with the problem of stress and its management strategies adopted by Public Health and Allied Science (PHAS) weekend students of Catholic University College of Ghana. A descriptive survey design is adopted. Questionnaires are developed and used to collect data from 150 PHAS weekend students, non-probability sampling technique is employed namely purposive and convenience sampling. A retention rate of 88% is achieved. Frequencies and percentages are used to analyse data with the aid of SPSS version 16. Tables and bar graphs are used to presents the results of the data. The findings suggest that majority of PHAS weekend students perceived stress at the workplace, had personal stressors and also school-related stressors. It is also identified that students used more of constructive coping strategies to deal with stress instead of counter-productive strategies like the use of alcohol or drugs. However, the study also established that the perceived stress affected the academic performance of the students. It is recommended that the Administration and Management of Catholic University College should establish study centres across the country based on the regional and districts distribution of students to reduce the travel time of students.</p> Miracle Atianashie A. James Kwabena Odum Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 540 554 10.53075/Ijmsirq/67560756579 Quality of Drug Prescription from Prescribers Perspective Under the National Health Insurance Scheme https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/65 <p>This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the quality of drug prescriptions from the prescribers’ perspective under the national health insurance scheme. A sample size of sixty prescribers consisting of thirty-three doctors, twenty-two medical assistants, and five midwives was selected for the study using purposive sampling technique and data collected from them using a structured interview guide and informal discussion. The study revealed that 90% of the prescribers said the drug list was limited in scope whereas 10% said otherwise, 80% of the prescribers claimed that NHIS did not permit them to prescribe suitable drugs outside the drug list as against 20% a who claimed they were allowed to prescribe outside the drug list. &nbsp;80% of the prescribers said they had difficulty prescribing for multiple health conditions under the NHIS, whereas 20% said they had no difficulty prescribing for multiple health conditions. However, from the prescribers' perspective, the NHIS has substantially affected the quality of drug prescriptions in the New Juaben Municipality. Among the important recommendations suggested were that the National Health Insurance Authority should widen the scope of the drug list to enable prescribers to write suitable drugs to treat clients and The National Health Insurance Authority, Food and Drug Board, Ghana Medical Association, and Ghana Pharmacy Council should collaborate to procure quality dugs for the Ghana health services.</p> Ernest Boateng Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 523 528 10.53075/Ijmsirq/6657766546767677 Contemporary Use of Proverbs as a Tool for Directing Everyday Communication with Young Akan Speakers https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/63 <p>The use of language among the human race is an endowed gift from God. It is the means of communication through which humans interact to express all facets of human and psychological feelings. This study is situated within the purview of Sociolinguistics and Ethnolinguistics. One of the major languages used in Ghana is Akan. The use of Akan in Ghana is widespread; its widespread use goes beyond the native-speaker boundaries. It is expected that a native speaker of a language must know the language, understand its structure and meaning, and use it appropriately in given situations. This study focuses attention on the use of proverbs of the Akan speaking people of Ghana, with particular attention on the young speakers whose near-neglect of the use of local proverbs leaves a gap in their everyday use of language. Relevant data on the concept of proverbs and their use was obtained from primary sources, from experienced informants such as traditional rulers, folklorists, the elderly and my teachers, and secondary sources like the internet, newspapers, and books articles and storybooks on Akan culture. The expressions used in this paper are based on the Akan orthography and phonemic method. The study reveals that the youth of Akan speech communities do not attach much attention to the use of proverbs. They are to some extent unfamiliar with proverbs and their use, and this inadequate knowledge makes them communicatively incompetent in their mother tongue. To ameliorate this situation, the Akan youth needs to be conscientized on the importance of proverbs, which forms part of the linguistic repertoire of a people’s language.</p> Yeboah, Mensah-Aborampah Dominic Frimpong Copyright (c) 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 3 1 511 522 10.53075/Ijmsirq/6657765776576767 Contemporary Use of Proverbs as a Tool for Directing Everyday Communication with Young Akan Speakers https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/70 <p>The use of language among the human race is an endowed gift from God. It is the means of communication through which humans interact to express all facets of human and psychological feelings. This study is situated within the purview of Sociolinguistics and Ethnolinguistics. One of the major languages used in Ghana is Akan. The use of Akan in Ghana is widespread; its widespread use goes beyond the native-speaker boundaries. It is expected that a native speaker of a language must know the language, understand its structure and meaning, and use it appropriately in given situations. This study focuses attention on the use of proverbs of the Akan speaking people of Ghana, with particular attention on the young speakers whose near-neglect of the use of local proverbs leaves a gap in their everyday use of language. Relevant data on the concept of proverbs and their use was obtained from primary sources, from experienced informants such as traditional rulers, folklorists, the elderly and my teachers, and secondary sources like the internet, newspapers, and books articles and storybooks on Akan culture. The expressions used in this paper are based on the Akan orthography and phonemic method. The study reveals that the youth of Akan speech communities do not attach much attention to the use of proverbs. They are to some extent unfamiliar with proverbs and their use, and this inadequate knowledge makes them communicatively incompetent in their mother tongue. To ameliorate this situation, the Akan youth needs to be conscientized on the importance of proverbs, which forms part of the linguistic repertoire of a people’s language.</p> Yeboah, Mensah-Aborampah Dominic Frimpong, PhD. Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 511 522 10.53075/Ijmsirq/66577657765767677 Visualising the Historical Development and Belief System of Taoism https://scholars.originaljournals.com/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/61 <p>This paper visualises the historical development and belief system of Taoism. Taoism is an ancient Chinese philosophy and religion that instructs believers on living in harmony with the universe. Taoism has been connected to the philosopher Lao Tzu, who, around 500 B.C.E. wrote the main book of Taoism, the Tao Te Ching. Taoism holds that humans and animals should live in balance with the Tao, or the universe. Taoists believe in spiritual immortality, where the body's spirit joins the universe after death. The Tao Te Ching, or “The Way and Its Power,” is a collection of poetry and sayings from around the third and fourth centuries B.C.E. guides Taoist thought and actions. The Tao (or Dao) is hard to define but is sometimes understood as the universe's way. Taoism teaches that all living creatures ought to live in a state of harmony with the universe, and the energy found in it. Ch’i, or qi, is the energy present in and guiding everything in the universe. Taoism became well-known in the eighth century C.E. as the religion of the Tang dynasty. It existed alongside Buddhism and Confucianism (another philosophical religion). However, during the Communist takeover in 1959, Taoism, Confucianism, and other religions were banned. This caused a decline in the practice of Taoism in China. Many modern Taoists live in Taiwan, although recent reforms in China have increased the number of Chinese Taoists. This paper gives a very concise and instrumental perspective about the historical inception, development, decline and recent happenings in Taoist communities across the globe. Follow through to learn more about Taoism and how they have shifted the timeline of history with their sentimental beliefs and practices.</p> Augustine Owusu-Addo Dedo Williams Johannes Yao Copyright (c) 2022 Scholars Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 3 1 491 502 10.53075/Ijmsirq/6657756765756